Total Solar Eclipse of 3 November, 1994.
Images of a Corona and Umbra to Remember.

Jeffrey R. Charles

© Copyright 1994, 1997, 1998, 2017 Jeffrey R. Charles, All Rights Reserved.

Total Solar Eclipse of 3 Nov. 1994. 94mm f/7 Telescope with Barlow. 1 Sec. at f/10.5, ISO 64 Film
This and all other images © Copyright 1994 Jeffrey R. Charles, All Rights Reserved.
Use of material herein is subject to conditions in the Versacorp Legal Information Page.

Images of the Total Solar Eclipse of 3 November, 1994.



The images below are from my 1994 total solar eclipse expedition. I spent over two weeks in Bolivia on this, my only solo eclipse trip to date. The 3 November, 1994 eclipse was my third encounter with the moon's shadow, but the qualities of each eclipse and the circumstances of each expedition make every eclipse unique. This 1994 expedition was very unique!

The 1994 eclipse was the only one I observed and photographed with a "real" telescope; my Vernonscope 94 mm f/7 refractor. In 1979, I used a 300 mm lens and a 2x teleconverter; in 1991, I observed and took pictures of clouds, even though I had a telescope with me; and in 1995, I used a 300 mm ED lens and a Dakin Barlow which was working at about 2.1x.

Compared to previous eclipse expeditions, I traveled slightly lighter for the 1994 eclipse, but compared to my later 1995 expedition, I really "porked out" on equipment! To photograph the corona, I brought my Vernonscope 94 mm f/7 apochromatic refractor, its equatorial mount, and a 350 mm f/5.6 lens. To lighten my luggage, I designed and constructed pulsed stepping motor drive for the Aus-Jena equatorial mount. The new drive runs on a 9 volt battery, so I did not have to bring a heavy 12 volt battery and an inverter. For use with the Vernonscope, I brought along my company's patented flagship astronomy product, the VersAgonal. It allowed me to observe and photograph the eclipse at two focal lengths through the same telescope!

I really like the Vernonscope, particularly after I made modifications which included a sliding, self storing dew cap and an iris diaphragm. The Vernonscope is compact and has a two inch focuser with a sliding draw tube. The sliding draw tube allowed me to "pre set" the prime focus of the telescope prior to totality. I then used the VersAgonal's built-in Dakin Barlow lens to photograph second contact and the first part totality at a focal length of 1000 mm, then I just turned the VersAgonal's control knob to flip out the built-in lens, after which I simply racked the Vernonscope's focuser all the way in to its stop. This allowed me to photograph the outer corona at the Vernonscope's prime focal length of 640 mm. Then, I used the VersAgonal's built-in flip mirror to observe the eclipse at 20x with my 32 mm wide field eyepiece.

After the visual observation, I switched to a different camera body and shot color negative film at prime focus. All of the corona photos (at two focal lengths with one camera and at one focal length with the other) were taken in only about a minute and a half, or less than half of the duration of totality! I also took video of the corona with an SVHS-C camcorder and a home made 3x converter lens. The converter lens worked pretty well; the first two diamond ring shots below are from the video!

In addition to photographing and observing the corona, I took 360 degree panoramic photos of the umbra and some shots of the eclipse over the horizon with a 20 mm lens. I also took wide angle video of the umbra with a 0.45x converter lens. Some of the wide angle images were to be used in experiments I was conducting in order to learn more about the visible effects of the lunar umbra and better predict its visible effects at future eclipses.

Unfortunately, interference by a few influential locals (mostly on days before the eclipse) had caused me lose so much sleep that I was like a zombie on eclipse day, which adversely affected my performance. In spite of this, I was able to obtain many corona photos, including those shown below. I was more or less operating on "autopilot" at the time, so I believe some of this success is attributable to repeatedly practicing my procedure. Planning and practice for eclipse photo procedures is so important that one paper at my web site is devoted to the subject! The 1994 total solar eclipse images follow. Enjoy!

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1994 Total Solar Eclipse Images, Corona:

The many aspects of the total solar eclipse of 3 November, 1994.
© Copyright 1994, 1997 Jeffrey R. Charles. All Rights Reserved.
Beginning of Totality from Sevaruyo, Bolivia. (Diamond Ring, Chromosphere, Corona)
The TOP TWO images are from my SVHS-C video camcorder with a home made 3x converter lens.
The LOWER LEFT chromosphere shot is cropped from a picture taken with a Nikon N2020 camera on a Vernonscope 94 mm f/7 triplet refractor with a Versacorp VersAgonal multi-function flip mirror attachment. The VersAgonal's built-in 1.5x Dakin Barlow provided a focal length close to 1,000mm. Exposure is 1/500 second at f/10.5 on Kodachrome 64 Professional film. Kodachrome Professional does not have as much artificial greenish tinge on dimmer parts of the corona.
LOWER RIGHT: Slightly cropped 1 second exposure shot with the same telescope and film.

Total Solar Eclipse of 3 Nov, 1994. Vernonscope 94mm. 1 Sec. at f/10.5 on ISO 64 Film.
Radially dodged print made from the previous 1 second exposure on Kodachrome 64 Professional film. Note the polar streamer detail that is lacking in the smaller "straight" print above. The original slide was printed directly onto black and white paper, so the print was a negative. Digital image processing was used to restore it to a positive. The only other digital processing was to add some dark background beyond the border of the tightly framed original image. I prefer to print the corona in black and white because it eliminates the unrealistic colors which most color films tend to impart to dimmer parts of the corona. If desired, the gray-blue sky color that is present during most eclipses can be digitally restored to the final image. This and all other images © Copyright 1994, 1997, 1998, 2017 Jeffrey R. Charles. All Rights Reserved.

Polar to Cartesian Conversion of 1994 Corona Image
Another way of looking the corona. Here, the corona has been "unwrapped" into a linear format via digital image processing to convert a "polar" image of the corina into rectangular (Cartesian) coordinates. Radial proportions of the corona are enlarged by a factor of two in order to better show streamer detail. This technique can be used to enhance image processing of the corona, after which the corona image can be converted back into its circular form. A scan of the radially dodged photographic print shown above was used as the original. © Copyright 1994, 1997 Jeffrey R. Charles. All Rights Reserved.

Long Exposures of 1994 Corona (1 and 3 Seconds @ f/5.6 and f/7.0)
LEFT: Three second exposure with a 350 mm f/5.6 lens on Tmax 100 film. The lower (eastern) streamer was very long, extending to more than five solar diameters on the original negative - and right out the edge of the picture! The enlargement was radially dodged.
UPPER RIGHT: Totality at the 640 mm prime focus of the Vernonscope 94 mm refractor. The top photo is 3 seconds at f/7 on Kodachrome 64 Professional film.
BOTTOM: One second at f/7 on Royal Gold 100 film with same telescope.

Earthshine on Moon from Above 3 Second @ f/7 Corona Photo
The original film was printed directly onto black and white paper. Very little dodging was necessary. The only digital processing was to burn in the limb area about 12 percent.

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1994 Total Solar Eclipse Images, Wide Angle Images of the Lunar Umbra:

Total Solar Eclipse of 3 Nov, 1993 over Sevaruyo, Bolivia.
© Copyright 1994, 1997 Jeffrey R. Charles. All Rights Reserved.
Wide Angle View of 3 Nov. 1994 Total Solar Eclipse
Total Solar Eclipse and Venus over Sevaruyo, Bolivia at 8:22:44 local time; 43 seconds after second contact. Exposure was 1 second at f/3.8 with a Nikon F film camera and Vivitar 20 mm wide angle lens on ISO 100 print film. Scan of custom print that captured a good amount of dynamic range.

The Lunar Shadow Puts on a Grand Light Show.
© Copyright 1994, 1997 Jeffrey R. Charles. All Rights Reserved.
Illustration of Lunar Umbra Projected into Atmosphere and onto Earth's Surface
Local circumstances for our encounter with the lunar umbra are shown above. Also shown are geometric representations of equations used in my umbral projection altitude experiment. Projection of the umnbra into the atmosphere is what makes it visible. The umbra cannot be seen in space where there is almost nothing for sunlight to illuminate outside the umbra. My experiments show that the umbral boundary is typically most visible in a clear sky at an altitude of about 22 kilometers. This is partly due to a relatively high concentration ozone, volcanic material, and other light scattering elements at that altitude in the atmosphere. As I had predicted, yellow color became visible above the northern (and later southern) horizon well before totality began. This is due in part to the relatively low eastern elevation angle of the sun, which causes the leading edge of the approaching umbra to darken the sky ahead of its position on the ground.

The Umbra Approaches:
LEFT: Ana Flores (a resident of Cochabamba) points out yellow color near the horizon to local observers a full minute and 35 seconds before totality, which began at 8:22:01 local time.
RIGHT: Most of the northwestern sky is darkened by the umbra, with 38 seconds to go before totality. By this time, the leading edge of the umbra had darkened the zenith to a deep twilight blue. All images in this table are video frames from a Sony TR-7 Camcorder with a 0.45x wide angle fisheye attachment having a horizontal coverage of about 90 degrees. The frames were captured with the Snap Magic (TM) video frame grabber.

LEFT: By 10 seconds before totality, the umbra had covered a mountain several kilometers to our west. It is visible as a dark area on the left side of the image. Venus was obvious by this time.
RIGHT: Totality! Ana Flores literally jumps up and down with excitement as she sees the corona for the first time. Many observers spontaneously reacted with similar enthusiasm.

The Umbra Departs:
LEFT: By 35 seconds into totality, the leading edge of the umbra continues toward the eastern horizon.
RIGHT: One minute, 30 seconds after the beginning of totality (and one minute, 37 seconds before the end of totality) the leading edge of the umbra is much closer to the horizon. Differing angles of the leading edge are caused by the umbral direction of travel being toward the right of the solar azimuth.

As the umbral boundary moves across the solar position at third contact (the end of totality), its rapid motion is detectable in images taken only one second apart.
The LEFT image is one second before third contact.
The RIGHT one is at third contact.

LEFT: Only one second after third contact, further umbral motion is detectable.
RIGHT: By a few seconds after third contact, more of the oval shape of the umbra is within the field of view.

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360 Degree Panoramic Images of the 1994 Lunar Umbra.

The 360 degree panoramas and other wide angle images were used in experiments I conducted in order to learn more about the visible effects of the lunar umbra. In particular, I was anticipating that observations from the high altitude site would allow me to determine the altitude, or altitudes, at which the boundary of the lunar umbra is the most visibly projected on the earth's atmosphere. Hopefully, this would provide the means to predict the appearance of the umbra at future eclipses. While corona photos can be taken at any time during totality, timing and exposure settings are crucial for umbral photos if one is to take advantage of optimum conditions.

Unfortunately, interference by a few influential locals in the days prior to the eclipse caused me lose more sleep than I had in many years, so I was like a "zombie" on eclipse day. This interfered the proper execution of procedures (particularly changing the shutter speed at the right time) for taking the crucial panoramic photos. The biggest problem was being too spaced out to remember to change shutter speeds on the camera taking panoramas after a few locals had repeatedly blocked my access to it. Auto exposure could not be used for these panoramas since each picture in the entire panorama must have the same exposure if it is to be of value for the experiment.

Raw images of 360 degree Panoramas are shown below. The panoramas taken during totality and at third contact are too underexposed to show much detail, but image processing may bring out some detail. Fortunately, I took a wide angle video panorama during totality, so I can eventually register and combine the images from both sources. This will take some time, so the better panoramas may not be uploaded very soon.

360 degree panoramic images of umbra before and after totality. Unmodified "raw" images.
© Copyright 1994, 1997, 2017 Jeffrey R. Charles. All Rights Reserved.
360 Degree Panoramas of Lunar Umbra Approaching Sevaruyo, Bolivia Eclipse Site
These 360 degree panoramas were taken just before totality at the 3 Nov. 1994 total solar eclipse.
The TOP panorama was taken 4 minutes, 55 seconds before totality, when the umbra only appeared to be a subtle darkening in the northwest.
The BOTTOM one was taken only 41 seconds before totality, when the umbra covered most of the sky toward the north and west. At this time, the sky near the zenith was deep blue and Venus had become visible near the sun's position. The cirrus cloud band cleared the sun in time for totality. In spite of the cloud, it was possible to incidentally see the inner corona at least 25 seconds before totality began.

360 Degree Panoramas of Lunar Umbra Engulfing Sevaruyo, Bolivia Eclipse Site
The TOP (underexposed) panorama was taken 30 seconds before the end of totality.
The BOTTOM one (also underexposed) was taken 15 seconds after third contact.

360 Degree Panoramas of Lunar Umbra Departing Sevaruyo, Bolivia Eclipse Site
These 360 degree panoramas were taken after totality.
The TOP one was taken 44 seconds after the end of totality, while the umbra still covered most of the southeastern sky. The exposure was 1/4 second at f/4 on ISO 100 print film.
The BOTTOM one was taken one minute and 38 seconds after totality. The umbra appears to be just a subtle darkening in the southeast as it races toward other lucky eclipse chasers.

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Instrumentation for the 1994 Eclipse

Instrumentation for the 3 November, 1994 Solar Eclipse.
© Copyright 1994, 1997 Jeffrey R. Charles. All Rights Reserved.
Telescope and 360 Degree Panoramic Imaging Instrumentation at 1994 Eclipse Site
UPPER LEFT: Home made pulsed stepping motor drive circuit for Aus-Jena German equatorial mount runs on internal batteries. The motor itself is from a Super Polaris motor drive assembly.
UPPER RIGHT: Equipment set up at a site near Sevaruyo well before first contact.
LOWER LEFT: Vernonscope 94 mm f/7 telescope seen from the east. The dew cap was moved back in order to accommodate my solar filter, which was made for a different telescope. My video camera and home made 3x converter lens are on the Aus-Jena mount's counterweight shaft. The small control box in my hand is a remote control for my indexing rotary panoramic camera platform.
LOWER RIGHT: The Vernonscope as seen from the northwest. Under the tripod is a VCR from PAT, a local TV station which I allowed to take a feed from my video camera.

Images of Bolivia (1994)

Images of Cochabamba and other picturesque areas in Bolivia.
© Copyright 1994, 1997 Jeffrey R. Charles. All Rights Reserved.
Church I Attended in Pasadena, CA, Circa 1992. Pastor is from Cochabamba, Bolivia.
LEFT: This set of images begins with the Latino church I attended in Pasadena, California. At the time, I was the only Anglo person in the congregation. The person leading music in the left image is the pastor, who is from Cochabamba, Bolivia. He and some other members are accomplished musicians.
RIGHT: A few people get together for choir practice. This church was associated with the Guatemalan denomination "Elim", but became affiliated with Ministerios Llamada Final in the summer of 1992.

Cochabamba, Bolivia (1994)
LEFT: This large Cristo statue overlooks Cochabamba from a mountain east of town. Some local people say it is two meters taller than the famous statue in Rio.
UPPER RIGHT: The top image is a close up of the Cristo statue.
LOWER RIGHT: Picturesque setting of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

Astronomia Sigma Octante in Cochabamba, Bolivia (1994)
Astronomy in Cochabamba.
TOP LEFT: A few members of Astronomia Sigma Octante, a center for astronomical research in Cochabamba, Bolivia. ASO members conduct regular observations of sunspots, variable stars, and other astronomical objects. They are much more than armchair astronomers.
TOP RIGHT: German Morales, the director of ASO.
BOTTOM: Computer simulation of 3 November, 1994 total solar eclipse, written by German Morales. The left image shows first contact. The right image shows an image of totality, along with local time.

Colegio Buenas Nuevas in Cochabamba, Bolivia (1994)
When I arrived at the school Colegio Buenas Nuevas, I was literally "swarmed" by appreciative children.
TOP LEFT: A mass of children hangs on to me as I make my way through the school. My arm is in the lower right corner of the image, where a different child was holding each finger.
UPPEE RIGHT: Some younger children in the crafts room at the school. Some of them presented me with a nice wood picture frame that I use for a picture of the eclipse.
LOWER LEFT: Me posing with some of the children.
LOWER RIGHT: Willma Alcocer, then the director of Colegio Buenas Nuevas. Seeing to the welfare of children there was more than just a job to her. Colegio Buenas Nuevas is the school at which some influential locals did not want me to appear for eclipse presentations, but it is the one I most enjoyed visiting. Many of the children are from relatively poor families, so many typically have to walk to school.

Tarata, Bolivia (1994)
Evangelical Quechua church in Tarata, Bolivia. The Quechua people were very friendly and seemed contented in spite of the way they are denied equal opportunity within the local culture. It is in remote areas like this that you can see what good character in a person is really like. On the LEFT, two women sing a song on stage. On the RIGHT, people clap to one of the songs. In thischurch, the men were to the left and the women were on the right.

Tarata, Bolivia (1994)
LEFT: Side road in Tarata. Most of the local construction is masonry.
RIGHT: We have no need for a radio in our truck, since a group to whom we gave a lift provided live music all the way back to Cochabamba!

Huasarancho, Bolivia (1994)
LEFT: A Musical group performing at a rural church in Huasarancho.
RIGHT: This is all there was for a restroom in the area. The doorless adobe structure is less than 1 meter square and 1.5 meters high, giving a new meaning to the term "public restroom"! The cement plug in the center is removable. In spite of apparent impoverished conditions, many of the area's residents are at least able to have televisions.

Road from Cochabamba to the Altiplano in Bolivia (1994)
LEFT: Bridge in the rugged terrain between Cochabamba and Oruro. The road reaches an elevation of 4,800 meters.
RIGHT: A child shepherds sheep and llama a few kilometers outside the town of Caracollo, on the Bolivian altiplano.

Notes: Most images in this lower section and a few in my other eclipse photo pages were grabbed from my video with a Quantum Leap "Snap Magic" (TM) video frame grabber, which was provided to the Staigerland 1998 live eclipse web cast, courtesy of the manufacturer. I did not get go to the 1998 eclipse, but as a member of the E-team, I provided advice to others involved in the effort.

Recommended Reading:

More of Jeffrey R. Charles' Eclipse Images

Eclipse Chaser's Journal - Jeffrey R. Charles' Eclipse Expeditions

Steps to a Successful Eclipse Expedition, by Jeffrey R. Charles

Use of material herein is subject to conditions in the Versacorp Legal Information Page. Need information about eclipses for your planetarium, motion picture, or other project? Jeffrey R. Charles performs science consulting in regard to eclipse phenomena and instrumentation. Please direct inquiries to Jeffrey R. Charles (jcharles *at* versacorp dot com) or see the web page for more information about total solar eclipse related science and engineering consulting.

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© Copyright 1994, 1997, 1998, 2017 Jeffrey R. Charles. All Rights Reserved.

Jeffrey R. Charles (jcharles *at* eclipsechaser dot com)

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